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Selected References Relevant to Access To Nature for Older Adults

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2007). Environmental scan of instruments to inform consumer choice in assisted living facilities. Retrieved from:

Anderzhon, J. W., Fraley, I. L., & Green, M. (2007). Design for aging: Post-occupancy evaluations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Babyak, M., J. A. Blumenthal, et al. (2001). "Exercise was more effective in the long term than sertraline or exercise plus setraline for major depression in older adults." Evidence-based Mental Health 4(4): 105.

Barnicle, T. and K. S. Midden (2003). "The effects of a horticulture activity program on the psychological well-being of older people in a long-term care facility." HortTechnology 13(1): 81-85.

Beauchemin, K. M. and P. Hays (1997). "Phototherapy is a useful adjunct in the treatment of depressed in-patients." Acta Psychiatr Scand 95(5): 424-7.

Berentsen, V. D., Grefsrød, E. E., & Eek, A. (2008). Gardens for people with dementia: Design and use. Tønsberg, Norway: Norwegian Centre for Research. Available in English from

Betrabet, G. (1996). "The garden as a restorative environment." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 8: 15-20.

Brawley, E. C. (1997). Designing for Alzheimer's Disease: Strategies for Creating Better Care Environments. New York, Wiley.

Brawley, E. C. (2001). "Environmental design for Alzheimer's disease: A quality of life issue." Aging & Mental Health 5(Suppl1): S79-S83.

Brawley, E. C. (2006). Design Innovations for Aging and Alzheimer's: Creating Caring Environments. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley.

Brown, R. D. and T. J. Gillespie (1995). Microclimatic Landscape Design. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Browne, C. A. (1992). The role of nature for the promotion of well-being of the elderly. The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium, Portland, OR, Timber Press.

Brownson, R. C., E. A. Baker, et al. (2001). "Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity in the United States." American Journal of Public Health 91(12): 1995-2003.

Brummett, W. J. (1997). The essence of home:Design solutions for assisted living housing. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Calkins, M. (1988). Design for Dementia: Planning Environments for the Elderly and the Confused. Owings Mills, MD, National Health Publishing.

Calkins, M. and B. R. Connell (2003). Mary, Mary, quite contrary: How do you get people to use your garden? Joint Conference of the National Council on Aging and the American Society on Aging, Chicago, IL.

Carpman, J. R. (1993). Gaining access to nature. Design that Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors. J. R. Carpman and M. A. Grant. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass: 199-216.

Carstens, D. Y. (1982). "Behavioral research applied to the redesign of exterior spaces: Housing for the elderly." EDRA: Environmental Design Research Association 13: 354-369.

Carstens, D. Y. (1993). Site Planning and Design for the Elderly: Issues, Guidelines, and Alternatives. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Carstens, D. Y. (1998). Outdoor spaces in housing for the elderly. People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space. C. C. Marcus and C. Francis. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Chalfont, G. and S. Rodiek (2005). "Building edge: An ecological approach to research and design of environments for people with dementia." Alzheimer's Care Quarterly: Environmental Innovations in Care 6(4): 341-348.

Chalfont, G., & Walker, A. (2013). Dementia green care handbook of therapeutic design and practice. Sheffield, UK: Safehouse Books.

Chaudhury, H. & Cooke, H. (2013). “Developing a physical environmental evaluation component of the “Dementia Care Mapping” (DCM) Tool.” In A. Joseph & U. Nanda (Eds.), Development of Tools for Healthcare Environments Research and Practice (pp. 45-52). Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA).

Cohen, U. and G. Weisman (1991). Holding on to Home: Designing Environments for People with Dementia. Baltimore, MD, John Hopkins University Press.

Cohen-Mansfield, J. and P. Werner (1998b). Visits to an outdoor garden: Impact on behavior and mood of nursing home residents who pace. Research and Practice in Alzheimer's Disease Intervention in Gerontology. B. J. Vellas, G. Fitten and G. Frisconi. Paris, Serdi Publishing: 419-436.

Cohen-Mansfield, J. and P. Werner (1999). "Outdoor wandering parks for persons with dementia: a survey of characteristics and use." Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 13(2): 109-17.

Cohen-Mansfield, J. and P. Werner (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: A review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 9(4): 361-381.

Coleman, M. T., S. Looney, et al. (2002). "The Eden Alternative: Findings after 1 year of implementation." Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 57A(7): M422-M427.

Connell, B. R. (2002). Health benefits of going outdoors among nursing home residents, Department of Veterans Affairs, Research and Development. 15.

Cooper Marcus, C. and Barnes, M. (1995). Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Therapeutic Benefits, and Design Recommendations. Martinez, CA, Center for Health Design.

Cooper Marcus, C. and M. Barnes, Eds. (1999). Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York, Wiley.

Cooper Marcus, C. and N. A. Sachs (2013). Therapeutic Landscapes: An Evidence-based Approach to Designing Healing Gardens and Restorative Outdoor Spaces, John Wiley & Sons.

Coupland, C., D. Wood, et al. (1993). "Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for hip fracture in the elderly." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 47(6): 441-443.

Cranz, G. and C. Young (2005). "The role of design in inhibiting or promoting use of common open space: The case of Redwood Gardens, Berkeley, CA." Journal of Housing for the Elderly 19(3/4): 71-93.

Cranz, G. and C. Young (2005). The role of design in inhibiting or promoting use of common open space: The case of Redwood Gardens, Berkeley, CA. The Role of the Outdoors Iin Residential Environments for Aging. S. Rodiek and B. Schwarz. New York, The Haworth Press, Inc.: 71-93.

Cutler, L. J. (2000). Assessment of physical environments of older adults. Assessing Older Persons: Measures, Meaning, and Practical Applications. R. L. Kane and R. A. Kane. New York, Oxford University Press: 360-379.

Cutler, L. J. and R. A. Kane (2005). As great as all outdoors: A study of outdoor spaces as a neglected resource for nursing home residents. The Role of the Outdoors in Residential Environments for Aging. S. Rodiek and B. Schwarz. New York, The Haworth Press, Inc.: 29-48.

Day, K., D. Carreon, et al. (2000). "The therapeutic design of environments for people with dementia: a review of the empirical research." Gerontologist 40(4): 397-416.

Detweiler, M. B., T. Sharma, J. G. Detweiler, P. F. Murphy, S. Lane, J. Carman, A. S. Chudhary, M. H. Halling and K. Y. Kim (2012). "What is the evidence to support the use of therapeutic gardens for the elderly?" Psychiatry investigation 9(2): 100-110.

Dunnett, N. and M. Qasim (2000). "Perceived benefits to human well-being of urban gardens." HortTechnology 10(1): 40-45.

Gerlach-Spriggs, N., R. E. Kaufman, et al. (1998). Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape. New Haven, Yale University Press.

Godbey, G. and M. Blazey (1983). "Old People in Urban Parks: An Exploratory Investigation." Journal of Leisure Research 15(3): 229-244.

Golant, S. M., & Hyde, J. (2008). The assisted living residence: A vision for the future. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Grant, C. F. and J. D. Wineman (2007). "The Garden-Use Model: An Environmental Tool for Increasing the Use of Outdoor Space by Residents with Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities." Journal of Housing for the Elderly 21(1-2): 89-115.

Hartig, T. and G. W. Evans (1993). Psychological foundations of nature experience. Behavioral and Environment: Psychological and Geographic Approaches. T. Garling and R. G. Golledge. Amsterdan, Elsevier (North-Holland): 427-457.

Hartig, T., M. Mang, et al. (1991). "Restorative effects of natural Environment experiences." Environment and Behavior 23(1): 3-26.

Hawes, C. and C. D. Phillips (2000). A National Study of Assisted Living for the Frail Elderly: Final Summary Report. Washington DC, Department of Health and Human Services.

Heath, Y. and R. Gifford (2001). "Post-occupancy evaluation of therapeutic gardens in a multi-level care facility for the aged." Activities, Adaptation, and Aging 25(2): 21-43.

Herzog, T. R., A. M. Black, et al. (1997). "Reflection and attentional recovery as distinctive benefits of restorative environments." Journal of Environmental Psychology 17: 165-170.

Hiatt, L. G. (1982). "The importance of the physical environment." Nursing Homes 31(5): 2-10.

Hinman, B. (1996). "Landscape design criteria for senior facilities." Spectrum (NASLI) 10(1): 23-25.

Howell, S. C. (1980). Designing for Aging: Patterns of Use. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.

Jo, H., S. Rodiek, E. Fujii, Y. Miyazaki, B.-J. Park and S.-W. Ann (2013). "Physiological and Psychological Response to Floral Scent." HortScience 48(1): 82-88.

Joseph, A. (2006). Health promotion by design in long-term care settings. Concord, CA: Center for Health Design.

Joseph, A., C. Zimring, et al. (2005). "Presence and visibility of outdoor and indoor physical activity features and participation in physical activity among older adults in retirement communities." Journal of Housing for the Elderly 19(3/4): 141-165.

Kane, R. L. and R. A. Kane (2000). Assessing older persons: Measures, meaning and practical applications. New York, Oxford University Press.

Kaplan, R. and S. Kaplan (1989). The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. New York, NY, Cambridge University Press.

Kaplan, R., S. Kaplan, et al. (1998). With People in Mind: Design and Management of Everyday Nature. Washington, DC, Island Press.

Kaplan, S. and R. Kaplan (2003). "Health, supportive environments, and the reasonable person model." American Journal of Public Health 93(9): 1484-1489.

Kaup, M. L. (2011). "The Significance of the Door in Nursing Homes: A Symbol of Control in the Domestic Sphere." Home Cultures 8(1): 25-41.

Keane, W. L., A. Cislo, et al. (2003). "Defining the dementia market." Assisted Living Today 10(3): 14-17.

Kearney, A. R. and D. Winterbottom (2006). Nearby nature and long-term care facility residents: Benefits and design recommendations. The Role of the Outdoors in Residential Environments for Aging. S. Rodiek and B. Schwarz. New York, The Haworth Press, Inc.: 7-28.

Kellert, S. R. and E. O. Wilson, Eds. (1993). The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, DC, Island Press.

Koltyn, K. F. (2001). "The association between physical activity and quality of life in older women." Womens Health Issues 11(6): 471-80.

Kono, A., I. Kai, et al. (2004). "Frequency of going outdoors: A predictor of functional and psychosocial change among ambulatory frail elders living at home." Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 59A(3): 275-280.

Kovach, C., G. Weisman, et al. (1997). "Impacts of a therapeutic environment for dementia care." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: 99-110.

Kweon, B. S., W. C. Sullivan, et al. (1998). "Green common spaces and the social integration of inner-city older adults." Environment and Behavior 30(6): 832-858.

Lambert, G. W., C. Reid, et al. (2002). "Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain." Lancet 360(9348): 1840-2.

Langer, E. J. and J. Rodin (1976). "The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34(2): 191-198.

Lantz, M. S. and E. N. Buchalter (2001). "Pseudodementia: Cognitive decline caused by untreated depression may be reversed with treatment." Geriatrics 56(10): 42-43.

Lawton, M. (1996). The impact of the environment on aging and behavior. Handbook of the psychology of aging. J. Birren and K. Schare. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Lawton, M. P. (1980). Environment and aging. Pacific Grove, CA, Brooks/Cole.

Leproult, R., E. F. Colecchia, et al. (2001). "Transition from dim to bright light in the morning induces an immediate elevation of cortisol levels." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 86(1): 151-157.

Lewis, C. A. (1996). Green Nature / Human Nature: The Meaning of Plants in our Lives. Urbana, University of Illinois Press.

Lewis, J. F. and R. H. Mattson (1988). "Gardening may reduce blood pressure of elderly people: Activity suggestions and models for intervention." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 3: 25-37.

Lomranz, J., S. Bergman, et al. (1988). "Indoor and outdoor Activities of aged women and men as related to depression and well-being." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 26(4).

Lovering, H. J. (1990). "Alzheimer's disease and outdoor space: Issues in environmental design." American Journal of Alzheimer's Care and Related Disorders & Research: 33-40.

Lu, Z., S. D. Rodiek, M. M. Shepley and M. Duffy (2011). "Influences of Physical Environment on Corridor Walking Among Assisted Living Residents Findings From Focus Group Discussions." Journal of Applied Gerontology 30(4): 463-484.

Mather, J. A., D. Nemecek, et al. (1997). "The effect of a walled garden on behavior of individuals with Alzheimer's." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 12(6): 252-257.

McBey, M. A. (1985). "The therapeutic aspects of gardens and gardening: An aspect of total patient care." Journal of Advanced Nursing 10(6): 591-595.

McBride, D. (1999). Nursing home gardens. Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. C. C. Marcus and M. Barnes. New York, Wiley.

McMinn, B. G. and L. Hinton (2000). "Confined to barracks: The effects of indoor confinement on agressive behavior among inpatients of an acute psychogeriatric unit." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 15(1): 36-41.

Messer, E. R. (1996). "The primary colors of nature: The essentials of therapeutic landscapes." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 8: 26-31.

Mezey, M., N. N. Dubler, et al. (2002). "What impact do setting and transitions have on the quality of life at the end of life and the quality of the dying process?" The Gerontologist 42(Special Issue III): 54-67.

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Mooney, P. F. and S. L. Milstein (1994). Assessing the benefits of a therapeutic horticulture program for seniors in intermediate care. The healing dimensions of people-plant relations: Proceedings of a research symposium, University of California, Davis.

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Regnier, V. and A. Denton (2009). "Ten new and emerging trends in residential group living environments." NeuroRehabilitation 25(3): 169-188.

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Rodiek, S. D. (2002). "Influence of an outdoor garden on mood and stress in older persons." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 13: 13-21.

Rodiek, S. (2005). "Resident perceptions of physical environment features that influence outdoor usage at assisted living facilities." Journal of Housing for the Elderly 19(3-4): 95-107.

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Rodiek, S. (2006). "A missing link: Can enhanced outdoor space improve seniors housing?" Seniors Housing and Care Journal 14: 3-19.

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Rodiek, S. (2008). "A New Tool for Evaluating Senior Living Environments." Seniors Housing & Care Journal 16(1): 3-9.

Rodiek, S. (2009). Access to nature for older adults [3-DVD set]. College Station, TX: Center for Health Systems & Design.

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Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee, C., Booth, G. J., & Morris, A. (2013). "Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?" Health Environments Research & Design Journal (HERD) 6(2).

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